There’s three sides to every story: there’s the history you were taught in school, the history the revisionist dig up and the truth.

Tuesday April 25th

1507: The Waldseemüller map, the first map to show America, is published by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller.

1599: Oliver Cromwell (PUR 1599-1658) Lord Protector of England (1653-58).

1607: Dutch fleet surprises the Spanish fleet anchored at Gibraltar.

1769: Marc Isambard Brunel (COMP 1769-1849) French-English civil engineer who patented the tunneling shield for building a tunnel under the Thames River.

1822: James Lord Pierpont (GILD 1822-1893) songwriter Jingle Bells.

1836: Laroy S. Starrett (GILD 1836-1922) inventor of fine measurement tools.

1840: Charles Dickens publishes The Old Curiosity Shop.

1846: Thornton’s Defeat, the spot President Polk claimed where Mexican forces attacked American forces causing the Mexican War (1846-48).

1853: John Frank Stevens (PROG 1853-1943) chief engineer of the Panama Canal (1905-07).

1854: Charles Sumner Tainter (PROG 1854-1940) engineer who with Chichester Bell invented the graphophone.

1859: Ground is broken for the Suez Canal.

1873: Howard Roger Garis (MISS 1873-1962) author Uncle Wiggily, Tom Swift, The Bobbsey Twins.

1874: Guglielmo Marconi (MISS 1874-1937) inventor of the radio.

1898: United States declares war on Spain.

1908: Edward R. Murrow (GI 1908-65) Broadcast journalist See It Now (1951-58).

1917: Ella Fitzgerald (GI 1917-96) jazz singer.

1923: Albert King (GI 1923-92) Blues guitarist.

1928: Buddy becomes the first Seeing Eye dog.

1933: Germans limit the number of Jewish students in public schools.

1933: Jerry Leiber (SIL1933-2011) lyricist Jailhouse Rock.

1938: The Adventures of Robin Hood is released directed by Michael Curtiz, starring Erol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland and Basil Rathbone.

1939: DC Comics Detective Comics #27 introduces Batman.

1940: Al Pacino (SIL 1940- ) actor The Godfather (1972), Serpico (1973), Dog Day Afternoon (1975), Scarface (1983), Heat (1995).

1945: Americans and Soviets link up at Torgau, Germany.

1945: United Nations Conference (April 25-June 26) begins.

1950:The first Black NBA picks.

1953: The DNA double-helix is discovered by F. H. Crick and James D. Watson.

1953: The first major 3-D movie, The House of Wax, is released.

1954: Bell Labs introduces the solar battery.

1959: St. Lawrence Seaway opens.

1959: A 25-year-old patient, David Carr, at the Royal Manchester Infirmary in England was later identified as the earliest AIDS patient.

1961: Robert Noyce patents the microchip.

1967: Colorado legalizes therapeutic abortions.

1968: Demonstrations close Columbia University.

1969: Renée Zellweger (13th 1969- ) actress Jerry Maguire (1996), Bridget Jones’s Diary (2001), Chicago (2002), Cold Mountain (2003), Miss Potter (2006).

1971: One thousand war protesters block the New Jersey Turnpike.

1974: The Carnation Revolution ends 48 years of fascism in Portugal.

1980: President Carter announces failure of mission to rescue Iranian hostages.

1990: The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

2003: Human Genome Project is completed.